The rapid development of families is unthinkable without providing apiaries with young fertile Queens, inheriting good productivity and vitality. The growth and development of the bee family depend on a good oviposition of the uterus. Therefore, in order to increase the output of honey from the apiary, you must first organize matavuvale business. But you only need to breed Queens in the apiary, where there are more or less suitable conditions for this and a competent beekeeper with experience.
Five conditions necessary for obtaining high-quality Queens
- Brood Queens need to be on warm, fine days, when bees bring nectar and pollen to the hives. When the bribe is suddenly stopped, the bees are fed with a honey-pergous mixture until the Queen cells are sealed.
- Take larvae for brooding Queens need only from strong non-rooting families that annually give a high stable honey collection, and less spiteful.
- The larvae used must not be older than 12 hours of age.
- The brood of Queens should be started after the replacement of wintering bees, if there is a printed drone brood in the nests of bees.
- In a family raised by Queens, there should be broods of all ages, which will guarantee a more even temperature in the nest and better care for the Queens.
- In case of artificial breeding of Queens in families with open brood, the larvae should be reared 506 hours after the selection of the uterus.
Methods for removing the uterus
There are two ways to hatch matoki: with transfer of larvae and without transfer. Beekeepers-practitioners who have sufficient experience with bees, brood Queens in a more perfect way, at the exact time for them, with the transfer of larvae. On small apiaries, the method without transferring larvae is mainly practiced.
Easiest way. If the beekeeper does not have any experience in this matter and does not know what to do, then it is necessary to create conditions under which the family will be forced to start breeding Queens itself. We proceed as follows: the most productive, less spiteful family from the very beginning, we begin to expand not by borders with dry land and wax, but by breeding at the exit from other families, or we do not expand at all. Such actions will inevitably lead the family to a swarming state, which is what we wanted. The bee family, experiencing the stuffiness and tightness of the nest, will have to rebuild the bowls, where the Queen will immediately lay eggs, from which high-quality swarming Queens will be born.
On the 8th day, depending on the weather, there will be a swarm. It can be returned back, after taking all the cancers with uterine cells, making each of them a branch from other families. As a result, we have high-quality Queens and early layering.
Brood of Queens without transfer of larvae. Choose a strong productive family and put a light brown frame with dryness in the middle of the nest. On the 4th-5th day, when eggs will be laid in this honeycomb from 1-2 days after setting the uterus and larvae will begin to hatch from them, the uterus from the family is removed and placed in the lay-off. Then we take out the honeycomb from the family and make cutouts in the form of triangles in nm to the middle. After the cut-out triangles are cut down, we thin out the larvae (we leave one and destroy two neighboring ones) and return the frame back to the middle of the nest between the open brood. After 3-4 days, we check the alignment of the Queen cells on this cell and remove the fistula Queen cells on other cells. In 5 days after the selection of the Queen, the bees will begin to seal the Queen cells. After 10 days after the selection of the uterus comb with Queen cells from families to remove and with a sharp knife to cut all the Queen cells, putting them in cells, or taking cuttings, cores. If this is not done, even one released uterus will gnaw through the Queen cells and kill all the Queens.
Important point. The cells must first be filled with food made of powdered sugar and honey-Kandy. Honey is not good for this, since both the bees and the Queen will be smeared and drowned in it.
Together with the Queen bee inside the cell should be several bees (3-4 PCs.). After the release of Queens from the Queen cells, we use them for their intended purpose: in layering, nucleuses, replacing old ones.
The breeding of Queens with the transfer of the larvae. This method is used mainly when you need a lot more Queens and in the required time. We prepare the larvae as described above (with sufficient experience, their age is determined visually).
We prepare a family-teacher in advance. For 5-6 hours before giving her the uterus, it is necessary to remove the uterus from it. After the uterus is removed, we begin to prepare the bowls. To do this, you need to make a template yourself, a round stick about 150 mm long with a carefully sanded end with a diameter of 8.5-9 mm. Then, in an enameled mug on the tile, we melt a piece of light wax. Dip the template in cold water, and then, after shaking, lower it into the hot wax 2-3 times to a depth of 5-6 mm. Then quickly remove and glue the resulting cell to a wedge or other device. On one grafting frame, using a homemade candle or wax, 3 rows of bowls are attached, in total-30 PCs.
The grafting frame with bowls for 20-30 minutes before transferring the larvae to them should be placed in a family-caregiver for their polishing and cleaning by bees. But no more, otherwise the empty bowls will be gnawed.
Larvae of one-day age are transferred to prepared bowls using a spatula, which can be made from aluminum wire itself. Under the larva floating in Royal jelly, carefully bring the spatula from the back and transfer it to the bowl. If the larva could not be taken immediately (it turned over), then the bees will not accept it. In this case, the transfer procedure must be repeated with another larva.
The grafting frame with the grafted larvae is put in the family-caregiver between the open brood. On the 10th day, the Mature Queen cells are enclosed in cells.
Gennady Ivanov, beekeeper with experience
Source: 1000 tips for summer residents magazine # 12 June 2018